Open Access Review

Addressing the gaps: sex differences in osteoarthritis of the knee

Barbara D Boyan2*, Laura L Tosi5, Richard D Coutts1, Roger M Enoka1, David A Hart1, Daniel P Nicolella1, Karen J Berkley13, Kathleen A Sluka1, C Kent Kwoh1, Mary I O’Connor14, Wendy M Kohrt1 and Eileen Resnick1

Author Affiliations

1 ISIS Research Network on Musculoskeletal Health, Society for Women’s Health Research, Washington, DC, USA

2 Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 315 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, GA, 30332-0363, USA

3 Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306-4301, USA

4 Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, FL, USA

5 Division of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, 20010

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Biology of Sex Differences 2013, 4:4  doi:10.1186/2042-6410-4-4

Published: 4 February 2013

Abstract

An introduction to the accompanying three papers.

Keywords:
Sex differences in response to sex steroids; Knee biomechanics and osteoarthritis; Pain perception in knee osteoarthritis; Musculoskeletal tissues; Estrogen; Testosterone; Rapid actions; Ligaments; Tendons; Bones; Animal models of osteoarthritis; Knee as an organ